Irrigation is a prerequisite for intensive garden planting. Soil moisture should be 70-80% of field capacity. The water consumption of plants depends on several factors:- Meteorological characteristics of the year
- planting age
- planting density
- species characteristics of the trees
- Soil Conservation System
Surface irrigation (along ditches, bowls, estuaries)
*Along the ravine.
This method is used in arid areas with flat terrain. The furrow depth is 15-25 cm, the width is 35 cm, and the feed rate should not exceed 1-2 liters/second. For this watering method to be effective, it is necessary to carefully plan the site.
*By the bowl.
Around each tree, roll soil 25 cm high to make a bowl with a diameter of 2-6 meters. Each bowl is fed by a sprinkler. This method is used in sloped areas because furrow irrigation is inefficient.overflow irrigation. This method is used in gardens with muddy soil. They make strips 100-300 meters long and enclose them with soil from rollers. These strips supply water for 2-24 hours, depending on the permeability of the soil.
It is used not only to moisten the soil, but also to moisten the air in the plantation. In addition, it helps to remove the inhibition of photosynthesis, which occurs at temperatures above +35 degrees. The irrigation rate for one irrigation varied between 300-500 m3/ha. The disadvantage of this method is the large drops, so they try to reduce them. For this purpose, synchronized pulse sprinklers with a daily output of 10-80 m3/ha are used. The duration of spraying is 2-15 days.
Water the apple orchard with finely sprayed water. The droplets are 100-500 microns in size, and water is provided for several minutes every 20-60 minutes, depending on the intensity of evaporation.
Water enters through the holes in which the pipes are laid. The advantage of this method over other methods is that water loss is completely excluded. Additionally, you can combine irrigation with other farming practices.
Drip irrigation in apple orchards consists in supplying water to the root zone through a permanent pipe network of drippers. The dropper is placed on the soil surface within a 1 meter radius from the tree. The water supply is carried out intermittently or continuously and slowly at a pressure of 1-3 bar. The pipes can be at the soil surface, above the soil – at the level of the trunk on the trellis or in the soil at a depth of 30-35 cm. For watering young dense gardens and adult gardens. Today, it is the most efficient and economical method of irrigation in terms of water consumption.
For drip irrigation in apple orchards, drip irrigation pipes with parameters are most often used:
Pipe wall thickness 35 – 40mils;
Dropper spacing 0.5 – 1m, depending on the tree planting plan;
Water output depends on irrigation time and pumping station capacity requirements.
The benefits of drip irrigation in apple orchards
Drip irrigation has many advantages over other methods:
Low water loss (1.5 times) by evaporation and osmosis.
Maintains optimal soil moisture consistently and evenly.
Protects the soil structure and prevents the appearance of soil crusts.
Excludes flooding and soil salinization.
It is more economical to introduce mineral elements through a dropper because the solution goes directly into the root zone. At the same time, the fertilizer utilization rate is about 80%.
Possibility of irrigation automation.
Features of watering apple orchards
Irrigation system should be in line with the water needs of plants during their growth and development stages. The main indicator of the irrigation regime is the irrigation rate. When determining it, it is necessary to consider the physical properties of soil moisture, the characteristics of cultivated crops, and irrigation methods. Depending on the irrigation regime, the irrigation rate also changes. It allows you to make up for the lack of water consumption. Knowing the total water usage during the growing season, the irrigation rate can be calculated. To do this, use a special formula. Total water use depends on the soil and climate characteristics of the area.
Irrigation dates are combined with the most important phases of the growing season:
- shoot growth
- before the ovaries fall in June
- Active fruit growth
Due to the significant differences in soil and climatic conditions across regions, there are also significant differences in irrigation regimes. Irrigation norms and conditions are determined from observations of soil moisture status and its availability to plants, which in turn depend on soil particle size composition.
Post time: Mar-10-2022